Senin, 31 Oktober 2011

Urban poverty and rural waste problem

Population growth, changing consumption patterns and lifestyles of people has increased the amount of waste generation, types, and diversity characteristics of the waste. The increased purchasing power of various types of basic materials and technology results and increased business or activities supporting economic growth in a region also contributed greatly to the quantity and quality of waste generated. The increasing volume of waste requiring management. Waste management that does not use the methods and techniques that are environmentally friendly waste management in addition will be a negative impact on health will also be very disruptive lingkungam good preservation of the residential environment, forests, rice fields, rivers and oceans.
Under Law No. 18 In 2008, the garbage is the remains of everyday human activities and / or natural processes that shaped solid. Waste management is meant is a systematic, comprehensive, and which includes reduction and sustainable waste management. Based on the physical properties and chemical waste can be classified into: 1) there an easy rotting garbage consists of organic waste such as leftover vegetables, meat offal, leaves, etc., 2) waste that is not easily decompose such as plastic, paper, rubber, metal, the rest of the building materials and others, 3) waste in the form of dust / ashes; and 4) hazardous waste (B3) for health, such as garbage comes from industries and hospitals that contain chemical substances and dangerous disease agents.

To realize the city clean and green, the government has launched various programs that basically aims to encourage and enhance community capacity in waste management. Adipura program for example in the year 2007 has been able to deliver to the Province of Bali Province Adipura for all counties and cities in Bali has managed to get Adipura Award. Although it has got Adipura not mean there are no problems of waste, and the government's appreciation of the community is always required to do so in turn the waste management garbage can be processed independently and be a resource. Looking at the above phenomenon is very necessary model of good management and proper garbage in urban and rural efforts to achieve a clean and green in Bali province.

Waste management aims to improve public health and environmental quality and make waste as resources. From the standpoint of environmental health, waste management is considered good if the waste is not a medium for breeding these germs as well as the waste does not become an intermediary medium widespread a disease. Other requirements to be met, that does not pollute the air, water and soil, are not causing the smell (do not disturb the aesthetic value), does not cause fires and the other (Aswar, 1986).
The increasing volume of waste generated by urban society can be seen from the city of Denpasar, ie in 2002 the average production of about 2114 m3/day waste originating from household waste, household-like waste, and waste-specific. Within four years, namely in 2006, the amount of waste production has increased to 2,200 m3/day (Tim Denpasar City Sanitation, 2007). Meanwhile, the lack of knowledge, awareness, and community participation in waste management becomes a problem that needs attention in the management of clean and healthy environment.
Factors affecting waste management include: (1) socio-political, which involves caring and commitment of government in determining the budget Budgets for environmental management (garbage), making decisions on waste management and public education efforts, counseling and skills training to increase awareness and community participation in waste management, (2) Social Aspects of Demography, including socio-economic (tourism activities, markets and shops, and household activities, (3) Social and Cultural Rights concerning the existence of interactions between institutions village / traditional, customary rules (awig- awig), ritual (ceremonial / religious), the structure of space Tri Mandala, a sincere spirit of social service, mental attitude and behavior of citizens are apathetic, (4) the existence of waste land for the shelter, (5) finance (finance), (6) the existence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and (5) coordination between institutions involved in the prevention of environmental problems (waste).
Urban waste management also has the driving factors and inhibitors in an effort to increase community participation in waste management. According to the research Nitikesari (2005) these factors include educational level, the placement of the trash in the house, the presence of scavengers, the action of hygiene, lack of legislation on waste and enforcement. The participation rate of urban (city of Denpasar) in dealing with garbage still in the category independently of moderate to low, people are still reluctant to do waste segregation.
Waste is increasingly difficult to manage, so in addition to public awareness and involvement, technology development and waste management model is an alternative attempt to maintain a healthy and clean environment and may provide other benefits.
Based on data SLHD Bali (2005) it appears that at this waste is difficult to manage because of various things, among others:
a. The rapid development of technology, faster than society's ability to manage and understand porsoalan garbage,
b. The increasing level of community life, which is not accompanied by a harmony of knowledge about waste
c. Increased operational costs of waste management
d. Waste management is inefficient and does not really cause problems of air pollution, soil, and water and declining aesthetic
e. Inability to maintain goods, low quality technology products that will accelerate into the garbage.
f. The more difficult it gets the land as a waste disposal site ahir.
g. Increasing number of people who objected that the region is used in a landfill.
h. The difficulty of storing waste that goes off quickly, because the weather is hot.
i. Difficult to seek the participation of the community to dispose of waste in place and maintain cleanliness.
j. Inadequate financing, given that until recently, most waste is managed by the government.
Handling of waste that has been done is the collection of waste from sources such as from the public (households) and public places are collected at the polling stations have been provided. Subsequently transported by trucks that have been equipped with nets to landfill. For areas that have not been given the facilities and transport services are limited prasara waste management has done some kind of self-managed with the help of transport facilities. For businesses or activities which produce more than 1 m3/day waste transported by the employer or in cooperation with other parties such as rural / urban villages or private parties. Handling of waste from waste sources are quite effective manner.
Some businesses that have taken place at the landfill to reduce the volume of waste, as has been done by scavengers for sorting recyclable waste. It turned out as a livelihood to earn. Against perishable waste composting efforts have been made. But these efforts still leaves the waste should be managed which requires high cost and large estates. Handling of residual waste in landfill is still the way to the incinerator or the combustion either in the open burning and open dumping to decay naturally. This poses new problems for the environment, ie pollution of soil, water, and air.
Waste management will be the future need to consider various things such as:
1. Preparation of regional regulations (regulations) on waste segregation
2. Socialization of the formation of waste-free area, such as tourist attractions, markets, terminals, roads protocol, village, etc.
3. Ranking hygiene for public areas
4. Put pressure on the producer and consumer goods for production and consumption patterns are more environmentally friendly
5. Put pressure on producers to be willing to draw (buy) back from the public on the packaging of products it sells, such as plastic packaging, bottles, foil ALLUMINIUM, and others.
6. Increasing the role of the community through small-scale waste management, can be started from the village / village or district, including the use of technology in terms of recycling, composting, and use incenerator.
7. Increasing the effectiveness of the functions of the landfill
8. Encourage the transformation (shift) the consumption pattern people to prefer the products that come from recycling.
9. Waste management and waste in an integrated
10. To coordinate with relevant agencies at both central and local, NGOs, Universities to increase the capacity of management of municipal waste
11. Evaluation and monitoring of waste problems and their management, landfill conditions of the environmental aspects, the development of the application of environmentally friendly technologies
12. Optimization of the funding in urban waste management, waste management system development funding
13. Consistency of implementation of legislation on waste and the environment.
14. Improving self-management efforts, especially waste handling waste that easily decompose at the village / village
15. Provide facilitation, encouragement, mentoring / advocacy to the community in an effort to improve waste management.
Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar and Tabanan has been cooperating in an integrated waste management business-oriented technology. Waste management approach to waste management technology is expected to more quickly, effectively and efficiently and can provide other benefits.
In accordance with the provisions stipulated in Article 5 of Law No.23 Th.1997 Managing the Environment, that the public is entitled to a better environment and healthy living. To obtain such rights, in Article 6 stated that the public and employers are obliged to participate in maintaining the function of environmental sustainability, and menaggulangi prevent pollution and environmental damage. Associated with these provisions, the Act NO. 18 In 2008 also explicitly stated, that every person has the rights and obligations in waste management. In terms of waste management section 12 stated, every person required to reduce and handle waste in environmentally sound ways. The community also expressed eligible to participate in decision-making processes, management and supervision in the field of waste management. The procedure for public participation in waste management can be done by taking into account the social and cultural characteristics of each area. Departure from these provisions, of the obligations and rights of every person both individually and collectively, as well as community groups of employers and other community members to participate in the management of waste in an effort to create urban and rural environment is good, clean, and healthy.
Several approaches and technologies and waste management that have been implemented include:
1. Composting technology
Composting is one way of processing waste, a process of decomposition and stabilization of biological materials with the final product is stable enough for use on agricultural land without adverse effects (Haug, 1980). Research conducted by the Rev. (2008) found that composting by using more modern methods (aeration) able to produce a compost that has a finer grain, content of C, N, P, K and higher pH, C / N ratio, and the content of Colform lower compared with conventional composting.
2. Fertilizer Production Technology Kascing
3. Processing waste into electricity. Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar and Tabanan has been cooperating in an integrated waste management business-oriented technology in a Joint Board of SARBAGITA. The planned technology is GALFAD technology (gasification landfills and anaerobic digestion). Waste management approach to waste management technology is expected to more quickly, effectively and efficiently and can provide other benefits.
4. Independent waste management
Waste is waste processing independently performed by people in sites such as the source of waste in households. Rural communities that generally have more extensive yard space large enough to have a chance to perform waste processing independently. Independent waste management model will provide better benefits to the environment and can reduce the burden on landfill. Waste sorting independently by the community in Denpasar was relatively low at only reached 20% (Nitikesari, 2005).
5. Community-based waste management
1) Various problems faced by communities in waste management of existing urban settlements in the village of Seminyak, Sanur and Sanur Kauh Kaja, and the Village Temesi Gianyar, namely: the problem of land acquisition for the location of Devo, the limited equipment and technology perawatannnya, limited funding for manpower recruitment adequate new, compost production is still low, it is difficult and limited marketing of compost so that the manager tends to economic deficit.
2) residential waste management model city based social community can be done adaptively by taking into account the social characteristics and cultural aspects of society, aspects of space (environment), volume, and type of waste generated.
The pattern of community-based waste management should be conducted in a synergistic (integrated) of the various elements (Village, governments, NGOs, business / private sector, schools, and other related components) by making the local community as object and subject of development, particularly in waste management to create environmentally clean, safe, healthy, beautiful, and sustainable
Law on waste management has asserted various restrictions such as not throwing garbage at a place specified and made available, burn waste not sesaui with technical requirements, as well as waste handling by open dumping at the landfill. Landfill closure by open dumping should be stopped within 5 years after the enactment of Law no. 18 of 2008. In developing the model of urban waste management should be able to involve the various components of stakeholders such as local government, businesses, NGOs, and communities. More urban component derived from the settlement (village Pakraman and Service), whereas in rural areas are generally still very closely related to the presence of rice fields with institutional subak areas that must be involved. The selection model is highly dependent on the characteristics and the characteristics of urban and rural garbage in the region.
With the enactment of Law no. 18 Year 2008 regarding Waste Management will require a good model for waste management and proper to be developed in urban and rural areas so that the quality of health, environmental quality can be improved and the waste can be a resource that can be utilized for enhancing the welfare of the community.
The model should involve various stakeholders components and attention to the characteristics of waste, urban or rural characteristics and socio-cultural existence of the local community.

Engaging Communities in Disaster Damage to Coastal and Marine Environment

I. Damage to Coastal and Marine Environment
Today's environment and natural resources have become scarce due to excessive extraction rates of over-exploitation and lack of attention to aspects of sustainability. Although he can economically increase the sale value, but on the other hand also pose a threat of loss of ecological bias is much larger, such as loss of land, scarcity of clean water, flood, landslide, and so on.
The failure of the management of Natural Resources and the environment identified as a result of three basic failure of the component devices and management actors. The first result of the failure of the policy lag of policysebagai part of the failure of legal devices that can not internalize environmental problems that exist. Policy failures of the policy indicated lag occurs due to an error in justification of the policy makers in determining the policies with a variety of articles related to the existence of Natural Resources and the environment. This means that, the policy making 'blunders' so that the environment is only a minor variable. In fact, today's international world always associate all economic activity with environmental issues, such as green product, sanitary safety, and so on. In addition, the process of creation and the determination of policies relating to the environment is done with minimal public participation and making the community as a major component of the target that must be protected. An interesting example is the policy of sea sand mining. On the one hand, the policy is designed to help create investment opportunities especially market is clear. But on the other hand have a significant impact and is very beneficial to the fishermen and fish farmers around the activity. Even indirectly can be felt by people in other areas. For instance occurred scour / abrasion, because the characteristics of coastal areas that are dynamic.
Both the failure of the lag of community as part of the local management of offender failure due to some limitations of the fundamental problems of society. The failure of community people lag occurs due to lack of people skills to be able to solve environmental problems unilaterally, in addition to lack of capacity and capability of communities to provide pressure to the parties concerned and shall manage and protect the environment. Powerlessness is further aggravated the "bargaining position" as the manager of the local communities and beneficiaries of Natural Resources and the environment. For example, the failure of society to control pollution problems caused by lack of private public perdulinya to internalize the externalities of their business activities. Concrete example is the number of factories that dispose of waste that is not internalized into the Watershed that will surely wasted out to sea or drain pipe leaks residue from oil extraction process is hidden, and so on.
Third the government's failure (lag of government) as part of a regional management actors failure caused by lack of government attention in response to environmental issues. The government's failure (lag of government) occurs due to a lack of concern for the government to seek alternative solutions to environmental problems faced by thoroughly involving all related components (stakeholders). In this case, the government often make prevention of environmental problems that exist in a partial and less coordinated. In effect, the creation of co-existence between the environmental variables that led to the harmony and continuity between the variables to be neglected. For example, making the solution retaining dikes abrasion conducted in some areas of the North Coast (Pantura) Java, in the short run may be able to cope with existing problems, but in the long term issues that may equal or greater may also be happening in the area because of the characteristics of coastal and marine areas that are dynamic.

Environmental Degradation II.Penanggulangan Community-Based Coastal and Marine
Mitigation of coastal and marine environmental degradation needs to be done carefully so that the purpose of the effort can be achieved. Given that the subjects and objects of this overcoming is closely related to the existence of coastal communities, where they also have a fairly high dependence on availability of resources in the vicinity, such as fish, shrimp, crab, mangrove wood, and so on, then overcoming environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based community becomes a wise choice to implement.
Overcoming environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based community is expected to be able to answer the problems that occur in a region based on the characteristics of natural resources and human resources in the region. In this case, a community has the right to be involved or even have direct authority to create a territory management plan tailored to the capacity and carrying capacity of regions to the various activities in the surrounding communities.
The pattern of management planning is often known as participatory management planning, where the pattern of bottom-up planning approaches that are synchronized with the pattern of the above planning approach be implemented in synergy. In this respect the principles of community empowerment become crucial thing that must be the basis of the implementation of a community-based management.
The general objective of overcoming damage to coastal and marine environment in this community-based borrowing definition COREMAP-Indonesia Institute of Sciences (1997) which states a general purpose community-based management, COREMAP in this case taking the coral reef ecosystem as an object of management. Therefore, the purpose of overcoming damage to coastal and marine-based community in this regard is to empower communities to participate actively and directly involved in the response to damage the local environment to ensure and maintain the sustainability of resource use and the environment, which is expected also to ensure the development continuous in the region concerned.

Specific objectives of environmental damage mitigation of coastal and marine-based community in this regard taken to (i) increase public awareness about the importance of tackling environmental degradation, (ii) improve the ability of communities to participate in the development of a prevention plan in an integrated manner the environmental damage that has been agreed upon; ( iii) assist local communities to choose and develop economic activities that are more environmentally friendly, and (iv) provide training on the system implementation and monitoring efforts to control environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based society.
Program objectives set forth COREMAP-Indonesia Institute of Sciences assessed in line with the thinking McAllister (1999) is that in a participatory research for natural resource management activities and environments that are often focused on community-based development, transformation or strengthening of community institutions, so that the identification process of institutional existing local and analyze it to determine the extent to which these institutional efforts related to environmental and natural resource management.

Efforts to control environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based society should be done by borrowing the technical guidelines proposed community-based management COREMAP (1997).
(1) Preparation
In this preparation there are three key activities that must be implemented, namely (i) the dissemination plan of activities with local communities and existing institutions, (ii) the election / appointment of a motivator (key person) villages, and (iii) strengthening the existing working groups / formation of a new working group.
(2) Planning
In the planning efforts of these community-based marine pollution, there are seven characteristics that planning is perceived to be effective, namely (i) the planning process comes from within rather than starting from the outside, (ii) a participatory planning, including participation of local communities, (iii) oriented the action (action) based on the level of readiness, (iv) have a clear purpose and outcomes, (v) has a flexible framework for decision pengambalian, (vi) is integrated, and (vii) include processes for monitoring and evaluation.
(3) Preparation of Social
To get support and full participation in society, then society must be prepared socially in order to (i) express the aspirations and traditional knowledge and wisdom in dealing with local issues which are the rules that must be obeyed, (ii) to know the advantages and disadvantages will be obtained from any proposed intervention options are considered to function as an outlet to cope with environmental problems encountered, and (iii) participate in planning and implementing the plan.
(4) Public Awareness
In order to make people aware there are three key realization, namely (i) awareness about the ecological values ​​of coastal and marine ecosystems and the benefits of prevention of environmental damage, (ii) awareness about conservation, and (iii) awareness about the economic sustainability if efforts to control environmental damage can implemented wisely and bijaksan
(5) Analysis of Needs
To conduct a needs analysis there are seven steps in its implementation, namely: (i) The implementation by involving local communities, (ii) identification of situations encountered in the location of activities, (iii) analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, (iv) identification of problems that require follow-up, (v) identification of utilization of the desired needs in the future, (vi) identification of obstacles that may hinder the effective implementation of these plans, and (vii) identification of strategies needed to achieve the objective activity of .
(6) Basic Skills Training
Basic skills training needs to be done for the effectiveness of efforts to control environmental damage, namely (i) training on the planning of the damage control efforts, (ii) skills on the basics of organizational management, (iii) community participation in monitoring and supervision, (iv) basic training on observation of resources, (v) training of socio-economic monitoring and ecological conditions, and (vi) orientation of the supervision and implementation of the provisions relating to efforts to control environmental degradation and resource conservation.
(7) Preparation of Management Plan Coastal and Marine Environment Damage in Integrated and Sustainable
There are five steps to plan mitigation of coastal and marine environmental degradation in an integrated and sustainable development, namely: (i) review the issues, strategies and obstacles to be faced in the implementation of environmental damage control efforts, (ii) determine the goals and purposes of a prevention plan, (iii ) supported the implementation of mapping by the community, (iv) identify the activity causes environmental damage, and (v) involve communities in planning and in monitoring the implementation of the plan.
(8) Development of Social Facilities
There are two main activities in the development of social facilities, namely: (i) to estimate or analysis of the needs of the infrastructure needed in the response to environmental damage, mitigation planning and implementation of community-based prevention, and (ii) enhance the capabilities (skills) institution- village institutions responsible for implementing measures to rescue and mitigation of environmental damage and infrastructure development.
(9) Funding
Funding is an important part in the implementation process of environmental damage prevention efforts. Therefore, the role of government as service providers are expected to provide alternative financing as an initial fund planning and implementation of prevention efforts. However, the most important asset in this effort to continue the public awareness efforts of the local community self-generated funds.
Ninth process of implementation of marine pollution prevention efforts mentioned above are not absolute, but can be tailored to regional characteristics, resources and local communities, especially in the area where there has been a local institution that provides a positive role for resource management and community economic development sekitarny

Minggu, 30 Oktober 2011


We all know that Indonesia is a country very rich in natural resources. One such property, Indonesia has a very fertile ground for being in the area that young age, so that in it there are many volcanoes are young again able to restore the surface that is rich in nutrients.
But over time, the fertility of the land owned by Indonesia many are used according to the rules that apply without regard to long-term impacts resulting from the processing of land.
One of them, the implementation of development in the country could no doubt have led to many positive effects for society, such as construction and mining industries have created new jobs for residents in the vicinity. But the success is often followed by the negative impact of adverse public and the environment.
Development of industrial zones in agricultural areas and the surrounding area cause a reduction in agriculture, pollution of soil and water bodies which can degrade the quality and quantity of results / agricultural products, the disruption of comfort and health of humans or other living creatures. While mining activities causing soil damage, erosion and sedimentation, as well as drought. Damage caused by mining activities are changed or the loss of the earth's surface (landscape), especially mining conducted openly (opened mining) left huge holes in the earth's surface. To obtain the ore mines, peeled and excavated soil surface using heavy equipment. The manager of the mining area mined to leave just like that without doing rehabilitation or reclamation efforts.Negative impact upon agricultural land and the environment need to get serious attention, because of industrial waste that contaminates agricultural land contains a number of harmful chemical elements that can contaminate water bodies and soil and crop damage and result in even further on the health of living beings.Based on these facts, it is required that addresses the special assessment of soil pollution and its impact on the surrounding environment.
The purpose and goal of making this paper, among others, namely:
1. as the study materials students about the impact of pollution on the environment
2. as a way to find different ways to cope with the impact of pollution that is being studied
3. as a method of collecting data about environmental pollution
This paper discusses about the pollution of soil, ranging from the description, impacts, and how to handle the pollution of land.

The object of writing include a picture / description, impacts, and how to control pollution of the soil.
The object that the author chose is the pollution of land, because land is one very important component of life. All human beings must have been very dependent of the existence of the land. However, many people who do not know how to land the right processing without much negative impact on life.
In writing this paper, the authors generally get written material from various references, either from the literature review of books - books or from internet media sources related to environmental pollution.
Preparation of this paper is based on the descriptive method of analysis, namely by identifying the problems based on existing facts and data, analyze problems based on literature and other supporting data, and find alternative solutions.

Contamination of land is a state in which man-made chemicals enter and alter the natural soil environment. Contamination usually occurs due to leakage of liquid wastes or industrial chemicals or commercial facilities; the use of pesticides; the entry of contaminated surface water into the sub-surface layer; oil transport vehicle accidents, chemical substances, or waste, waste water from a landfill and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the soil are not eligible (illegal dumping).
When a substance is hazardous / toxic have polluted the soil surface, so it can evaporate, and the rain washed away or into the ground. Pollution that enters the soil and then deposited as toxic chemicals in soil. Toxic substances in the soil may have a direct impact to humans when in contact or can contaminate groundwater and the air above it.

Brought Impact Due to Soil Contamination
Various impacts caused by soil contamination, including:
1. On health
The impact of soil pollution on health depends on the type of pollutant, pathway into the body and the vulnerability of affected populations. Chromium, a wide range of pesticides and herbicides are carcinogenic to all populations. Lead is very dangerous in children, because it can cause brain damage, and kidney damage in the entire population.
Chronic exposure (flooding) to benzene at a certain concentration can increase the chances of developing leukemia. Mercury (mercury) and siklodiena known to cause kidney damage, some can not even be treated. PCBs and related siklodiena on liver toxicity. Karmabat organophosphate and may cause muscle nerves. Various solvents containing chlorine stimulates changes in the liver and kidneys and a decrease in the central nervous system. There are several types of health effects that looked like headache, dizziness, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rashes to exposure to chemicals mentioned above. What is clear, in large doses, can cause soil contamination Death.
2. In Ecosystem
Soil contamination can also impact on ecosystems. Changes in soil chemical radicals can arise from the presence of toxic chemicals / hazardous even at low doses though. These changes can cause changes in metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods that live in the soil environment. The result can even eliminate some of the primary species of the food chain, which can give a great result against predators or other levels of the food chain. Even if the chemical effects on the lowest form of life is low, the bottom of the food pyramid can ingest foreign chemicals which time they will be concentrated on the creatures of the inhabitants of the pyramid. Many of these effects are seen at this time, as the concentration of DDT in birds causes the eggshell fragility, increased levels of seedling death and the possible loss of species.
The impact on agriculture, especially changes in plant metabolism, which in turn can cause a decrease in agricultural output. This can cause further impact on the conservation of plants where the plants are not able to hold the soil from erosion. Some of these contaminants have long half-life and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from the primary soil contaminants.

Handling To Do
There are several steps handlers to reduce the impact caused by soil pollution. Among them:1. Remidiasi
Remediation activities to clean up the contaminated soil surface. There are two types of soil remediation, namely in-situ (or on-site) and ex-situ (or off-site). On-site cleaning is cleaning at the site. Cleaning is cheaper and easier, consists of cleaning, venting (injection), and bioremediation.
Off-site cleanup includes excavation of contaminated soil and then taken to a safe area. After that the area is safe, the land cleared of contaminants. The trick is, the ground is stored in tanks / tank-proof, then the cleaning agent is pumped into the tub / tank. Furthermore pollutants pumped out of the tub which is then processed by the installation of waste water processing. Off-site cleaning is much more expensive and complicated.

2. BioremediationBioremediation is the cleaning process soil contamination with microorganisms (fungi, bacteria). Bioremediation aims to break down or degrade contaminants into less toxic materials or non-toxic (carbon dioxide and water).
A. Conclusion
Contamination of land is a state in which man-made chemicals enter and alter the natural soil environment. Contamination usually occurs due to leakage of liquid wastes or industrial chemicals or commercial facilities; the use of pesticides; the entry of contaminated surface water into the sub-surface layer; oil transport vehicle accidents, chemical substances, or waste, waste water from a landfill and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the soil are not eligible (illegal dumping).
There are several ways to reduce the impact of soil contamination, including the remediation and bioremidiasi. Remediation is a way to clean surfaces contaminated soil. While bioremediation by soil contamination cleanup process using microorganisms (fungi, bacteria).
To better understand all about the pollution of soil, readers are advised to find other references relating to the material in this paper. In addition, it is hoped the reader after reading this paper is able to apply them in everyday life - day in conserving the soil and its constituent present in it.

Soekarto. S. T. 1985. Organoleptic studies for Food and Agriculture Industry. Bhatara Literacy Works, Jakarta. P. 121.
Simple. 2007. Soil Pollution (On-line). accessed December 26, 2007.
Bachri, Moch. 1995. Environmental Geology. CV. Literacy, Malang. P. 112.

Other Related readings contained in this blog:
Water pollution
Pollution of land
Air Pollution
Tailings & Sludge
Land Degradation

Surabaya River Water Quality Down!

Surabaya - Surabaya River Water Quality and the region downstream of the Brantas River has decreased from class I to class II.

"The decline in water quality in Surabaya River and the Brantas River due to high pollution, either by industrial waste and domestic waste (household)," said Secretary of Perum Jasa Tirta I, Vonny C Setiawati, in Surabaya, on Tuesday.

He mentioned the household waste that pollute the Surabaya River and the Brantas River has reached 60 percent, 30 percent of industrial waste and agricultural wastes 10 percent.

Previously, water Surabaya River and the Brantas River categorized as Class I raw water suitable for consumption. However, the presence of contamination, the quality of river water decreased to grade II, so it is not suitable for consumption.

"The quality of water that can not be restored. However, there is a little help, one of them by doing patrols to suppress the load of waste water from industry," he said.

Vonny acknowledge the existence of team-member Air Patrol personnel Jasa Tirta, the Environment Agency and the NGO Consortium Java Environment is helping improve water quality.

"If the first is still a lot of complaints from river water users such as taps, now that the complaint has been reduced," he said.

Therefore, he hoped the patrols would not only be in Surabaya River or downstream Brantas, but also in the upper Brantas and Solo are also many industries there.

Meanwhile, Secretary of BLH East Java, Lucianingsih, said it had to guide the 73 industries that had been throwing waste into the river.

River Water Quality Declines Continues In South Sumatra

A number of District residents of West Ilir I assisted with the Indonesian Army and Administrator Naional Herton Romi Foundation Eceng mumps cleaning that meets the Red Creek Land, Western District of Ilir I yesterday.

Palembang - Palembang Environment Agency found a decrease in water quality in some children the Musi River. So water is no longer feasible in the consumption of cooked though.
"The results of our study some of the tributary water quality decline, can not be consumed by even though its already cooked, Except when it's processed first in the taps, so the bacteria is dead," said Head of the Pack Palembang City Living environment Abubakar. Decline in water quality in several tributaries was studied with a view of the four parameters of the study, ie, phosphate, sulfate, ammonia, and collicoloum. "It turns out that water quality is very low, a coarse eye alone, the water issuing bad smell and cloudy until the black," he explained.
Several tributaries studied by the Environment Agency is the city of Palembang, Aur River located in the Village Ulu 9-10, SU District I, Sekanak River. Then River weir in Sekip, and Lambidaro River. "Four of this river that we use for the sample since, including a fairly large tributaries and flows directly into the Musi River," he explained. The cause of the decline in water quality of this creek, he said, is caused by the disposal of household waste without going through screening.
"Domestic waste that pollutes the river itumisalnya sampahdapur, feces (kotoranmanusia), deterjendan others," he added. Later contributors to household wastes that directly flows into the Musi River is not only dominated by the Palembang people alone. According to him, there is also the local counties and cities in South Sumatra, which have a creek that empties into the Musi River. Solution of the government to address these water quality degradation, namely by building a domestic sewage treatment plants are placed in every neighborhood residents.
"We are currently designed can install a household sewage treatment plant before the waste is discharged into the creek," he said. For a wastewater treatment plant and solid waste, provided for 5-10 houses. "So, any kitchen home residents who installed the pipe directly connected to either the treatment plant effluent and solid wastes, when discharged into the creek, the waste is already clear and clean, "Abubakar said. Meanwhile, Assistant Regional Secretary II Palembang, Apriadi Busri urged the residents not to litter, especially in creeks and ditches.
"From now on we invite the community to work together to keep the environment clean especially the creeks, not to make the ecosystem in the river could be dead. We also appealed to citizens to cooperate cleaning times per week, "said Apriadi. Executive Director of Forum for Environment (Walhi) Sumsel Anwar Sadat admitted, if the water quality of creeks in Kilkenny continued to decline. "This condition could not be allowed, the government must find a solution, because the later will affect the quality of river water a day-to-day musi consumed by the people, "said Anwar Sadad.
If it is affecting the water quality of the Musi according to him it would endanger the health of entire communities. "It's not only affects the Musi River kesehatantetapiakanmembuat dirty so that its influence also on the social and tourism Palembang, South Sumatra has launched moreover Visit Musi," he explained. Government is responsible for correcting this condition, and emotion make great strides.
"At least the government should localize industries either small or large that dump waste into the child directly into Arau River Musi River," he explained. Maintaining the quality of the Musi River water a shared responsibility, but he should start by the government. "At least the government should not only reproduce the pier building, but also must create a green belt on the edge of the river Musi river, to prevent erosion of the Musi River," he added. Then, to cope with household waste which makes up the creek becomes dirty unfit for consumption.
He said he advised the government to make domestic sewage treatment plants. "Some of our neighboring countries like Thailand and the other could make the installation's why kitatidak, halituharussegeradilakukan before things get worse," he concluded