Senin, 03 Oktober 2011

deforestation in Inbonesia

FOREWORD

I as the authors acknowledge with gratitude to Almighty God, having been granted health to this day so as to make this simple paper.

Damage to forests is something that is very bad for human life and other living things so that we all need to guard it with the best of our forests to stay awake condition, as for the purpose of writing this paper to understand more how to keep the forest in order to keep both of the threat whatever.

I would also like to thank also to the parties who have been concerned and also the support given to us all and we are ready to accept criticism and advice in case of errors in this writing and the writing of this we hope you all love the forests that have been given to the creator and take good care

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1. A background of the problem

[1] Forests are natural resources that are invaluable for the biodiversity contained therein as a source of germplasm, the source of timber and non-wood, regulatory water management, flood prevention and erosion and soil fertility, protection of natural biodiversity for the benefit of science, culture, recreation, tourism and so on. Therefore use of forests and their protection have been stipulated in the Constitution 45, Law no. 5 of 1990, Act No. 23 of 1997, Law no. 41 in 1999, PP No. 28 year 1985 and some of the decisions of the Minister of Forestry and several decisions the Director General of PHPA and the Director General of Forest Utilization. However, disruption of forest resources continue even increasing in intensity.

Destruction of forest cover: forest fires, illegal logging and other forms of disturbance is one of the increasingly frequent. The negative impact caused by forest destruction include considerable ecological damage, reduced biodiversity, reduced economic value of forest and soil productivity, climate change and global micro-, and smoke from forest fires disrupt people's health and interfere with good transportation by land, rivers, lakes, seas and air. And also because of forest fire smoke disorders Indonesia in recent years have crossed national borders.

[2] Various measures of prevention and protection of forest fires and illegal logging have been conducted including the effectiveness of legal instruments (laws, regulations, and the Decree of the Minister to DG), but do not provide optimal results. Since a fairly large forest fires in East Kalimantan in 1982/83, the intensity of forest fires occur more frequently and its spread widening. Recorded some of the next big enough fire in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997 to 2003. It is therefore necessary in-depth assessments to prevent and combat forest fires.

Illegal logging can also negatively affect, among others, can both menyababkan landslides and floods. Hence the need for preservation of our forests so that no fires and illegal logging and we do not want.

This paper is a synthesis of knowledge about forests, forest fires and illegal logging tackled collected from various sources in the hope can be used as input material for researchers, policymakers and development of knowledge for the lovers of the environment and forestry.

1. 2 Identify the problem

[3] Fire as a tool or technology that dominated the early humans to alter the environment and natural resources began in the mid to late Paleolithic era, 1400000-700000 years ago. Since humans know and master the technology of fire, the fire is considered as the basis for the development of human capital because it can be used for clearing forests, improve the quality of grazing land, hunting wildlife, wildlife drive, social communication and so on around the campfire (Soeriaatmadja, 1997).

[4] Analysis of soil charcoal from Borneo suggests that the forests have burned periodically starting at least since 17,500 years ago. Fires likely to occur naturally during periods of drier climate than the climate at that time. However, humans also have burned the forest more than 10 thousand years ago to facilitate hunting and open farmland. Notes written a century ago and oral histories from people who lived in the woods confirmed that forest fires are nothing new for Indonesia's forests.

The main cause of forest fires in East Kalimantan is due to human activity and only a small part caused by natural events. The process according Soeriaatmadja natural fires (1997), can occur due to lightning strikes, collisions longsuran rocks, outcrops of coal, and piles srasahan. But according Saharjo and Husaeni (1998), fires due to natural processes is very small and for the case of Kalimantan is less than 1%.

Large wildfires triggered also by the emergence of the El-Nino climate phenomenon such as fires that occurred in 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997 (Ministry of Environment and UNDP, 1998). The development also shows the occurrence of fire expansion of the fire which spread not only in East Kalimantan, but in almost all provinces, and not only occur in forest areas but also in non-forest land.

The cause of forest fires is still a topic of debate, whether due to natural or due to human activities. However, based on some research results indicate that the main cause of forest fires is the human factor which originated from the activities or issues as follows:

    Traditional farming systems of the local population on the move.
    Clearing of forests by forest concession holders (HPH) for insdustri timber and oil palm plantations.
    Structural causes, the combination of poverty, development policies and governance, giving rise to conflicts between customary law and positive law of nations.

[5] Shifting move is an attempt to traditional agriculture in forest areas where land clearing is always done by burning because it is fast, cheap and practical. However, land clearing for farming is generally very limited and controlled because it has followed the rules of heredity (Dove, 1988). Wildfire may occur due to farming activities only as kamuflasa of illegal loggers who use the road concessions and in the concession area.

Clearing of forests by concessionaires and plantation companies for the development of industrial crops and plantations generally cover a fairly wide area. Method of clearing land by clear-cutting and land clearing burning is an alternative to the most inexpensive, easy and fast. However, these methods often result in fires not only limited to the area prepared for the development of industrial crops or plantations, but extends into protected forests, production forests and other land.

While the structural causes, generally originated from a conflict between the owners of the timber industry and mining capital, with the natives who feel ownership of traditional (indigenous) their land, forests and lands controlled by the investors who were given approval by the positive law of nations. Consequently pique people acted with arson in order to maintain their existing land for generations. Here poverty and injustice be triggered forest fires and the people will not want to participate to extinguish it.

While illegal logging is a condition that is not foreign to mention the many people who live in areas near the mountains using forests for timber, but without asking permission first. [6] And the result of Deforestation, 2100 Fountain Drying

Scarcity of kerosene, which often plagued the population in various regions in Banyumas, Central Java, in recent years spurred concern the population re-use firewood cutting trees and perennials.

If that happens, damage to water sources (springs) will be faster. In Banyumas currently living springs 900, whereas in 2001 still recorded spring 3000.

Each year an average of about 300 spring water logging due to programmed death (production forests) and the felling of tree belonging to the people, but due to various pressures of life and developmental needs of the population, protection of water resources and forest tree or heavier.

On the other hand, residents in the land there are sources of water never receive compensation in exchange for agreeing not to chop down the tree.

Difficulty obtaining kerosene population impact on the increased use of firewood. Residents in rural areas far from the base kerosene choose to cut down trees for firewood.

1. 3 Discussion of problems

Recent years forest fires occur almost every year, particularly in the dry season. Large fires occurred in the East Kalimantan in 1982/83 and in 1997/98. In the year 1982/83 forest fires have burned about 3.5 million hectares in East Kalimantan and is a record for the world's largest forest fire after a forest fire in Brazil that reached 2 million hectares in 1963 (Soeriaatmadja, 1997).

Then the record was broken again by Indonesian forest fires in the year 1997/98 which had burned an area of ​​11.7 million hectares. Largest fires occurred in Kalimantan with a total of 8.13 million hectares of land burned, followed by Sumatra, West Papua, Sulawesi and Java respectively 2.07 million hectares, one million hectares, 400 thousand hectares and 100 thousand hectares (Tacconi, 2003).

Furthermore, Indonesia's forest fires continue to take place every year although the total area burned and the resulting losses are relatively small and generally not well documented. Data from Direktotar General Forest Protection and Conservation of Nature shows that the forest fires that occur each year from 1998 until 2002 was recorded ranged between 3 thousand hectares to 515 thousand hectares (Direktotar General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, 2003).

1. 3. 1 Losses caused

[7] Forest fires in recent years become an international concern as an environmental and economic issues, especially after a major fire in various parts of the world in 1997/98 which destroyed an area of ​​25 million hectares. Fires in 1997/98 resulted in forest degradation and deforestation economic cost of approximately U.S. $ 1.6 to 2.7 billion and costs due to pollution haze around U.S. $ 674-799 million. The loss caused by forest fires is likely much larger because of the estimated economic impact for business activities in Indonesia are not available. Valuation costs associated with carbon emissions likely to reach U.S. $ 2.8 billion (Tacconi, 2003).

The results of recalculation of economic loss that collected Tacconi (2003), suggests that the Indonesian forest fires has caused losses of between U.S. $ 2.84 milayar up to U.S. $ 4.86 billion to cover losses and damages assessed by the money that is not valued in money. Loss includes damage associated with fire such as wood, dead trees, plantations, gardens, buildings, cost control and so forth as well as costs associated with smog such as health, tourism and transportation.

1. 3. 2 Impact of Forest Fires

[8] Forest fires are quite large as it did in the 1997/98 result in a very extensive material damage in addition to wood, non wood and animals. The negative impact of up to become a global issue is the smoke from the burning that has crossed national boundaries. Residue in addition to causing fog also pollute the air and increases greenhouse gases.

Thick smoke from forest fires have a negative impact because it can interfere with public health, especially respiratory disorders. Besides heavy smoke also disrupt transportation besides air transport, especially road transportation, rivers, lakes, and seas. At a fairly large forest fires many cases had to be delayed or canceled flights. While on land, river, lake and sea happened a few cases of collision or accident causing loss of lives and property.

Losses due to disruption of public health, delays or flight cancellations, and accidents on land transport, and in the water can not be calculated exactly, but certainly big enough burden on society and business actors. The impact of forest fires in the form of smoke Indonesia has crossed national borders, especially Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Thailand.

Another effect is the destruction of forests after a fire and loss of wildlife. Severe forest fire will be difficult to be restored, because the soil structure is damaged. The loss of vegetation causes the open land, so easily eroded, and can no longer withstand flooding. So after forest fire, frequent floods in the rainy season in different regions of the forest on fire. Losses from flooding are also difficult to calculate.

Analysis of the impact of forest fires is still in early development stage, knowledge about the complex ecosystem that has not been well developed and the information in the form of a critical threshold of ecological changes associated with fire is very limited, so the impact of forest fires difficult to calculate precisely. Nevertheless, based on rough calculations described above can be concluded that forest fires pose a considerable impact for the surrounding community, even the impact to neighboring countries.

Since a fairly large forest fires that occurred in 1982/83 which was then followed by a series of forest fires the next few years as well as illegal logging in Indonesia is actually already implemented several measures, both are anticipatory (preventive) or handling.

Efforts to prevent forest fires done include:

(A) Strengthening institutions by forming the shape of Sub Directorate of Forest Fire and Non Pusdalkarhutnas structural form, Pusdalkarhutda and Satlak and fire brigades in each forest concessions and plantations;

(B) Completing the software in the form of guidance and technical guidance to prevent and control forest fires;

(C) Completing the hardware equipment in the form of prevention and extinguishing forest fires.

(D) Conduct fire control training for government officials, personnel and state-owned forestry enterprises and forest communities.

(E) Campaign and counseling through a variety of apples Standby control forest fires.

(F) Provision of supplies to entrepreneurs (HPH, HTI, plantations and Transmigration), Regional Office of MoF, and the ranks of local government by the Minister of Forestry and the Ministry of Environment.

(G) In any approval of the release of forest land for non-forestry development, forest clearance is always required without fuel.

Prevention efforts to prevent illegal logging include:

    We are missing the forest rangers should be holding the guard to prevent theft.
    Awarded to ban illegal loggers are not committing theft
    Sanctions given that whoever took the forest on purpose.

Besides prevention, the government also nelakukan prevention through various activities such as:

(A) Empower the post-post are also guarding the forest fires at all levels, and conduct training on matters that must be done during idle I and II.

(B) The mobility of all resources (human, equipment & funding) at all levels, both in the ranks of the Department of Forestry and other agencies, and corporations.

(C) Improve coordination with related institutions at the central level through PUSDALKARHUTNAS and at the regional level through PUSDALKARHUTDA Tk I and SATLAK forest and land fires.

(D) Ask for foreign aid to fight fires, among others: Bomba troops from Malaysia to fires in Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra and West Kalimantan.

1. 3. 3 Increase Prevention and Control Efforts

Prevention and control efforts that have been done so far has yet to give optimal results and forest fires continue to occur in every dry season. This condition is caused by various factors, among others:

    Poverty and injustice for the community or in the forest periphery.
    Awareness of all walks of life against fire is still low
    The ability of the government apparatus, especially for coordination, provide guidance for public awareness, and fire fighting efforts in the bush and forests are still low.
    Efforts to both formal and informal education for forest fire prevention have been inadequate.

The identification of a spate of forest fires showed that the main cause of forest fires is the human factor and the factors that trigger the spread of the fire area is agricultural activity, the opening of the timber and plantation as well as customary law conflicts with state law, then to improve the effectiveness and optimization of activities to prevent and control forest fires need to remedy the problems associated with these factors.

On the other hand has not been effective management of fire caused by poverty and injustice, lack of public awareness, limited ability of the apparatus, and the lack of facilities for fire-fighting, then to optimize prevention and forest fire prevention in the future include:

a. Do coaching and counseling to improve the welfare of rural communities or in forests, as well as working to increase public awareness about the dangers of forest fires and shrubs.

b. Give the same respect for customary law as state law or amend state law by adopting the customary law.

c. Increased resource capacity through training of government officials as well as formal education. The opening of the forest fire prevention program of study is an alternative that could be offered.

d. Equip facilities for menanggulagi forest fires, both software and hardware.

e. Application of legal sanctions on perpetrators of violations in the field of environment, especially the trigger or direct cause of the fire.

1. 4 Goals discussion

From all what is written or what was discussed above that in creating a beautiful and sustainable forests, we as a nation, Indonesia must maintain and preserve our natural forests in order to remain well preserved, in order to avoid forest fires and logging, illegal logging.

If all that has been established in the government and not addressed properly implemented then the impact will occur in our successors nanti.telah explained that many of the negative impacts that occur when there is fire and deforestation, therefore we all have to prevent it from happening what we do not want in the years to mendatang.dan if all had happened then we rebuild what was destroyed in order to become beautiful again.

And purpose of all this is to remind everyone that the impact of fires and illegal logging will make our nature to be destroyed and much damage will occur as a result of our own actions, therefore we all must take good care of our forests so that remain well preserved.

1. 5 Methods of data collection

The contents of all of these were collected from several sources and penelitian.dan also what we get from several sources in discussing the re-re-searched and searched through the internet by asking the people who work in local forestry in order to avoid misunderstandings.

1. 6 Systematic presentation

In this paper presentation by gathering resources that have been got and write it back with good language and correct. And also add what is less obvious and less in the writing and less understood by those banyak.Penulisan this paper I wrote with my best effort and a lot of additional writing and language.

CHAPTER II

INDONESIA FOREST DAMAGE

Damage that occurs in the Indonesian jungle is a very tiddak fun event for Indonesian citizens because forests are natural resources that are invaluable for the biodiversity contained therein as a source of germplasm, the source of timber and non-timber, regulator of the water system, preventing flooding and erosion and soil fertility, protection of natural biodiversity for the benefit of science, culture, recreation, tourism and so on. Therefore use of forests and their protection have been stipulated in the Constitution 45, Law no. 5 of 1990, Act No. 23 of 1997, Law no. 41 in 1999, PP No. 28 year 1985 and some of the decisions of the Minister of Forestry and several decisions the Director General of PHPA and the Director General of Forest Utilization. However, disruption of forest resources continue even increasing in intensity.

Damage to forests include: fires and illegal logging is an example that is not good and all of these events must have no impact and its prevention but we also do not assume everything is just peristiw a mediocre because there needs to be learning and special training in order to direct practice and make our forests more womanly comfortable to be seen and visited by many people.
CHAPTER III
CLOSING
3. 1 Conclusion

In closing this paper can be put forward some of the following:

1. Forests are natural resources that is invaluable for the biodiversity contained therein as a source of germplasm, the source of timber and non-wood, regulatory water management, flood prevention and erosion and soil fertility, and so on. Therefore the use and protection governed by the laws and regulations.

2. Fires and illegal logging is one form of disturbance to forest resources and lately more and more frequent. Fires and deforestation caused huge losses and the impact is very wide, even across borders. On the other hand prevention and control efforts made during this still does not give optimal results. It is therefore necessary improvements thoroughly, especially those related to the welfare of rural communities or in forests.

3. Various improvement efforts that need to be done among others in the field of education to the community especially with regard to the factors that cause forest fires, increase the ability of government officer of the Department of Forestry, increased facilities and menanggulagi to prevent forest fires and illegal logging, legal reform and implementation expressly sanctions

4. Due to deforestation, 2100 springs to dry up and as a result of logging also resulted in damage to water sources (springs) will be faster.

3. 2 Suggestions

For the readers of this paper and also all the people that the forest is a source of life for humans if the forest is no more then human life will change and poverty will occur. Thus the forest preserve is not considered easy.

And for nature lovers, continue to safeguard the best and also increase vigilance against those who want to spoil, prevent possible damage to the forest of ours.
Bibliography

Danny, W., 2001. Ecological and Socio-Economic Interactions With Forest Fires in East Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Paper Presented at Pusdiklat Forestry. Bogor. 33 p..

Direktotar General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation. 2003. According to Forest Fire Forest Function, Last Five Years. Direktotar General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, Jakarta.

Dove, M.R., 1988. Shifting system in Indonesia. A case-study from West Kalimantan. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta. P. 510.

Soemarsono, 1997. Land of fire, shrubs and forests in Indonesia (Causes, and Perspective Efforts Efforts in the Future). Proceedings of the Symposium: "Impact Of Forest Fires Natural Resources and Environment". December 16, 1997 in Yogyakarta. p. :1-14.

Soeriaatmadja, R.E. 1997. Impact of Forest Fire Response Resources And Environmental Management and Natural Resources To which. Proceedings of the Symposium: "Impact Of Forest Fires Natural Resources and Environment". December 16, 1997 in Yogyakarta. p.: 36-39.

Schweithelm, J. and D. Glover, 1999. Causes and Effects of Fire. The high price of A Disaster: Environmental Losses Due to Fire and smoke in Indonesia. Editor: D. Glover & T. Jessup

Saharjo and Husaeni, 1998. East Kalimantan Burns. Wildfire 7 (7) :19-21.

Tacconi, T., 2003. Forest fires in Indonesia, Causes, costs and policy implications. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. 22 p.. http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/Publiction/occasional Paper No. 38 (i) / html

Source: Kompas,
[1] Danny, W., 2001. Interaction of Social Ecology and Economics, Bogor. 33 p..

[2] Direktotar General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation. 2003

[3] Soeriaatmadja, R.E. 1997. "Impact of Forest Fires". December 1997 in Yogyakarta. p.: 36-39.

[4] Schweithelm, j and D.glover, 1999

[5] Dove, M.R., 1988. Shifting system in Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta. 510 p.

[6] Sources: compass.

[7] Tacconi, T., 2003 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia. 22 p..

[8] Soemarsono, 1997, Impact of Forest Fires, dated December 16, 1997 in Yogyakarta. p. :1-14.

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