I. Damage to Coastal and Marine Environment
Today's environment and natural resources have become scarce due to excessive extraction rates of over-exploitation and lack of attention to aspects of sustainability. Although he can economically increase the sale value, but on the other hand also pose a threat of loss of ecological bias is much larger, such as loss of land, scarcity of clean water, flood, landslide, and so on.
Failure of natural resources and environmental management identified as a result of three basic failure of the component devices and management actors. The first result of the failure of the policy lag of policysebagai part of the failure of legal devices that can not internalize environmental problems that exist. Policy failures of the policy indicated lag occurs due to an error in justification of the policy makers in determining the policies with a variety of articles related to the existence of natural resources and environment. This means that, the policy making 'blunders' so that the environment is only a minor variable. In fact, today's international world always associate all economic activity with environmental issues, such as green product, sanitary safety, and so on. In addition, the process of creation and the determination of policies relating to the environment is done with minimal public participation and making the community as a major component of the target that must be protected. An interesting example is the policy of sea sand mining. On the one hand, the policy is designed to help create investment opportunities especially market is clear. But on the other hand have a significant impact and is very beneficial to the fishermen and fish farmers around the activity. Even indirectly can be felt by people in other areas. For instance occurred scour / abrasion, because the characteristics of coastal areas that are dynamic.
Both the failure of the lag of community as part of the local management of offender failure due to some limitations of the fundamental problems of society. The failure of community people lag occurs due to lack of people skills to be able to solve environmental problems unilaterally, in addition to lack of capacity and capability of communities to provide pressure to the parties concerned and shall manage and protect the environment. Powerlessness is further aggravated the "bargaining position" as the manager of the local community and utilizing natural resources and environment. For example, the failure of society to control pollution problems caused by lack of private public perdulinya to internalize the externalities of their business activities. Concrete example is the number of factories that dispose of waste that is not internalized into the watershed that will surely wasted out to sea or drain pipe leaks residue from oil extraction process is hidden, and so on.
Third the government's failure (lag of government) as part of a regional management actors failure caused by lack of government attention in response to environmental issues. The government's failure (lag of government) occurs due to a lack of concern for the government to seek alternative solutions to environmental problems faced by thoroughly involving all related components (stakeholders). In this case, the government often make prevention of environmental problems that exist in a partial and less coordinated. In effect, the creation of co-existence between the environmental variables that led to the harmony and continuity between the variables to be neglected. For example, making the solution retaining dikes abrasion conducted in some areas of the North Coast (Pantura) Java, in the short run may be able to cope with existing problems, but in the long term issues that may equal or greater may also be happening in the area because of the characteristics of coastal and marine areas that are dynamic.
Environmental Degradation II.Penanggulangan Community-Based Coastal and Marine
Mitigation of coastal and marine environmental degradation needs to be done carefully so that the purpose of the effort can be achieved. Given that the subjects and objects of this overcoming is closely related to the existence of coastal communities, where they also have a fairly high dependence on availability of resources in the vicinity, such as fish, shrimp, crab, mangrove wood, and so on, then overcoming environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based community becomes a wise choice to implement.
Overcoming environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based community is expected to be able to answer the problems that occur in a region based on the characteristics of natural resources and human resources in the region. In this case, a community has the right to be involved or even have direct authority to create a territory management plan tailored to the capacity and carrying capacity of regions to the various activities in the surrounding communities.
The pattern of management planning is often known as participatory management planning, where the pattern of bottom-up planning approaches that are synchronized with the pattern of the above planning approach be implemented in synergy. In this respect the principles of community empowerment become crucial thing that must be the basis of the implementation of a community-based management.
The general objective of overcoming damage to coastal and marine environment in this community-based borrowing definition COREMAP-LIPI (1997) which states a general purpose community-based management, COREMAP in this case taking the coral reef ecosystem as an object of management. Therefore, the purpose of overcoming damage to coastal and marine-based community in this regard is to empower communities to participate actively and directly involved in the response to damage the local environment to ensure and maintain the sustainability of resource use and the environment, which is expected also to ensure the development continuous in the region concerned.
The specific objective of damage prevention community-based marine coastal environment is also defined by borrowing purposes PBM programs developed COREMAP (1997). Specific objectives of environmental damage mitigation of coastal and marine-based community in this regard taken to (i) increase public awareness about the importance of tackling environmental degradation, (ii) improve the ability of communities to participate in the development of a prevention plan in an integrated manner the environmental damage that has been agreed upon; ( iii) assist local communities to choose and develop economic activities that are more environmentally friendly, and (iv) provide training on the system implementation and monitoring efforts to control environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based society.
Program objectives set forth COREMAP-LIPI (1997) assessed in line with the thinking McAllister (1999) is that in a participatory research for natural resource management activities and environments that are often focused on community-based development, transformation or strengthening of community institutions, so that the identification process of institutional existing local and analyze it to determine the extent to which these institutional efforts related to environmental and natural resource management.
Efforts to control environmental degradation of coastal and marine-based society should be done by borrowing the technical guidance of community-based management (PBM) filed COREMAP (1997).
In this preparation there are three key activities that must be implemented, namely (i) the dissemination plan of activities with local communities and existing institutions, (ii) the election / appointment of a motivator (key person) villages, and (iii) strengthening the existing working groups / formation of a new working group.
In the planning efforts of these community-based marine pollution, there are seven characteristics that planning is perceived to be effective, namely (i) the planning process comes from within rather than starting from the outside, (ii) a participatory planning, including participation of local communities, (iii) oriented the action (action) based on the level of readiness, (iv) have a clear purpose and outcomes, (v) has a flexible framework for decision pengambalian, (vi) is integrated, and (vii) include processes for monitoring and evaluation.
(3) Preparation of Social
To get support and full participation in society, then society must be prepared socially in order to (i) express the aspirations and traditional knowledge and wisdom in dealing with local issues which are the rules that must be obeyed, (ii) to know the advantages and disadvantages will be obtained from any proposed intervention options are considered to function as an outlet to cope with environmental problems encountered, and (iii) participate in planning and implementing the plan.
(4) Public Awareness
In order to make people aware there are three key realization, namely (i) awareness about the ecological values of coastal and marine ecosystems and the benefits of prevention of environmental damage, (ii) awareness about conservation, and (iii) awareness about the economic sustainability if efforts to control environmental damage can implemented wisely and bijaksan
(5) Analysis of Needs
To conduct a needs analysis there are seven steps in its implementation, namely: (i) PRA by involving local communities, (ii) identification of situations encountered in the location of activities, (iii) analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, (iv) identification of problems that require follow-up, (v) identification of utilization of the desired needs in the future, (vi) identification of obstacles that may hinder the effective implementation of these plans, and (vii) identification of strategies needed to achieve the objective activity of .
(6) Basic Skills Training
Basic skills training needs to be done for the effectiveness of efforts to control environmental damage, namely (i) training on the planning of the damage control efforts, (ii) skills on the basics of organizational management, (iii) community participation in monitoring and supervision, (iv) basic training on observation of resources, (v) training of socio-economic monitoring and ecological conditions, and (vi) orientation of the supervision and implementation of the provisions relating to efforts to control environmental degradation and resource conservation.
(7) Preparation of Management Plan Coastal and Marine Environment Damage in Integrated and Sustainable
There are five steps to plan mitigation of coastal and marine environmental degradation in an integrated and sustainable development, namely: (i) review the issues, strategies and obstacles to be faced in the implementation of environmental damage control efforts, (ii) determine the goals and purposes of a prevention plan, (iii ) supported the implementation of mapping by the community, (iv) identify the activity causes environmental damage, and (v) involve communities in planning and in monitoring the implementation of the plan.
(8) Development of Social Facilities
There are two main activities in the development of social facilities, namely: (i) to estimate or analysis of the needs of the infrastructure needed in the response to environmental damage, mitigation planning and implementation of community-based prevention, and (ii) enhance the capabilities (skills) institution- village institutions responsible for implementing measures to rescue and mitigation of environmental damage and infrastructure development.
Funding is an important part in the implementation process of environmental damage prevention efforts. Therefore, the role of government as service providers are expected to provide alternative financing as an initial fund planning and implementation of prevention efforts. However, the most important asset in this effort to continue the public awareness efforts of the local community self-generated funds.
Ninth process of implementation of marine pollution prevention efforts mentioned above are not absolute, but can be tailored to regional characteristics, resources and local communities, especially in the area where there has been a local institution that provides a positive role for resource management and economic development of the surrounding community.