Sabtu, 01 Oktober 2011

FOREST DEGRADATION

Indonesia's tropical rain forests is one of the most threatened forests on earth. According to Butler (2007), between the years 1990 to 2005, the country has lost more than 28 million hectares of forest, including 21.7 percent of virgin forest. Decrease in primary forests are biologically rich is the second under Brazil. The number of forests in Indonesia diminishing and many were destroyed due to human activities. Data in the 1960's, as much as 82% of the country of Indonesia is covered by rain forest, down to 68% in 1982, 53% in 1995, and 49% at this time. Generally, these forests could be categorized as forests that have been degraded.

Humans are the main cause of degradation of tropical rain forests. In Indonesia, human activities that damage forests include logging, mining in forest areas, agriculture, construction of roads, villages, and farms. Forests in Indonesia are currently in grave condition since lost more than two million hectares of forest area in each year. Damage mainly occurs in tropical rain forests on Borneo island.

Logging

Deforestation in Indonesia has introduced some of the most remote areas, and forbidden in the world in development. Logging carried out by reason of the need for building timber and firewood. Logging activities in Indonesia, conducted by the community and timber industry companies, both legally and illegally. The practice is very widespread deforestation occurred on the island of Borneo and Papua, where timber companies continue to enter further into the interior regions to find suitable trees. It has caused damage more severe in the rain forests in Indonesia. For example, in the mid-1990s about 7% of the mining permit located in Irian Jaya, but now more than 20 percent exist in the region (Butler, 2007).

 Agriculture in the Rainforest

Every year, thousands of miles of rain forest is removed for agricultural uses. There are two two groups involved in converting rainforest into farmland of local people (farmers) and companies in the field of agriculture. According to Butler (2007), poor farmers use slash and burn to clear land in forest areas. Usually they bercocoktanam in the field of land had for several years until the soil leached of nutrients and after that they should move to a new land parcels in the woods and do the same thing again.

The condition is aggravated by the transmigration program to the location of tropical rain forests in recent decades. While many agricultural companies use the services of a local resident, was hired to open the forest by slash and burn. Then the land is used for crops like oil palm monocultures.

Mining Activities

Mining is one of the biggest causes of loss of tropical rain forests in Indonesia. It can be seen very clearly, especially the tropical rain forest in Borneo. Rain forest area was reduced in an extraordinary way by the activities of both legal and illegal mining. Borneo forest destruction has an impact on the mass erosion, siltation of rivers and led to catastrophic flooding. Many other mining activities in Indonesia have operations in the area of ​​tropical rainforest protected, such as in Sumatra, Sulawesi and Papua. Everything contributed a great deal in the process of degradation of tropical rain forests, despite still being done purnatambang rehabilitation.

Road Construction In Rain Forest

Construction of roads and highways in the rain forest opens up many areas for development. In Indonesia, the opening road trans in Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi and Papua result of forest destruction in many areas. With the construction of roads, easier access by poor people and certain parties to conduct illegal forest exploitation. This is slowly allowing the formation of a new township-village community to the forest so that the greater the effect.

Animal In Rain Forest

Clean up the forest to graze cattle is the main cause of forest loss in the Amazon, and Brazil now produces more beef than ever before. In addition to farming for food, many landowners use their animals to expand their land. Only by putting their animals in an area of ​​forest, land owners can obtain ownership of the land. For in Indonesia, the activity of farms in the tropical rain forests because of farms had no significant effect by the general population is still traditional.

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