Minggu, 30 Oktober 2011

LAND POLLUTION

A. BACKGROUND
We all know that Indonesia is a country very rich in natural resources. One such property, Indonesia has a very fertile ground for being in the area that young age, so that in it there are many volcanoes are young again able to restore the surface that is rich in nutrients.
But over time, the fertility of the land owned by Indonesia many are used according to the rules that apply without regard to long-term impacts resulting from the processing of land.
One of them, the implementation of development in the country could no doubt have led to many positive effects for society, such as construction and mining industries have created new jobs for residents in the vicinity. But the success is often followed by the negative impact of adverse public and the environment.
Development of industrial zones in agricultural areas and the surrounding area cause a reduction in agriculture, pollution of soil and water bodies which can degrade the quality and quantity of results / agricultural products, the disruption of comfort and health of humans or other living creatures. While mining activities causing soil damage, erosion and sedimentation, as well as drought. Damage caused by mining activities are changed or the loss of the earth's surface (landscape), especially mining conducted openly (opened mining) left huge holes in the earth's surface. To obtain the ore mines, peeled and excavated soil surface using heavy equipment. The manager of the mining area mined to leave just like that without doing rehabilitation or reclamation efforts.Negative impact upon agricultural land and the environment need to get serious attention, because of industrial waste that contaminates agricultural land contains a number of harmful chemical elements that can contaminate water bodies and soil and crop damage and result in even further on the health of living beings.Based on these facts, it is required that addresses the special assessment of soil pollution and its impact on the surrounding environment.
B. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES
The purpose and goal of making this paper, among others, namely:
1. as the study materials students about the impact of pollution on the environment
2. as a way to find different ways to cope with the impact of pollution that is being studied
3. as a method of collecting data about environmental pollution
C. SCOPE
This paper discusses about the pollution of soil, ranging from the description, impacts, and how to handle the pollution of land.

CHAPTER IIMETHOD OF WRITING
A. OBJECT OF WRITING
The object of writing include a picture / description, impacts, and how to control pollution of the soil.
B. OBJECT OF THE ELECTION
The object that the author chose is the pollution of land, because land is one very important component of life. All human beings must have been very dependent of the existence of the land. However, many people who do not know how to land the right processing without much negative impact on life.
C. DATA COLLECTION METHODS
In writing this paper, the authors generally get written material from various references, either from the literature review of books - books or from internet media sources related to environmental pollution.
D. METHOD OF ANALYSIS
Preparation of this paper is based on the descriptive method of analysis, namely by identifying the problems based on existing facts and data, analyze problems based on literature and other supporting data, and find alternative solutions.

CHAPTER IIIANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMA. DISCUSSIONa. Picture of Land Pollution
Contamination of land is a state in which man-made chemicals enter and alter the natural soil environment. Contamination usually occurs due to leakage of liquid wastes or industrial chemicals or commercial facilities; the use of pesticides; the entry of contaminated surface water into the sub-surface layer; oil transport vehicle accidents, chemical substances, or waste, waste water from a landfill and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the soil are not eligible (illegal dumping).
When a substance is hazardous / toxic have polluted the soil surface, so it can evaporate, and the rain washed away or into the ground. Pollution that enters the soil and then deposited as toxic chemicals in soil. Toxic substances in the soil may have a direct impact to humans when in contact or can contaminate groundwater and the air above it.

    
Brought Impact Due to Soil Contamination
Various impacts caused by soil contamination, including:
1. On health
The impact of soil pollution on health depends on the type of pollutant, pathway into the body and the vulnerability of affected populations. Chromium, a wide range of pesticides and herbicides are carcinogenic to all populations. Lead is very dangerous in children, because it can cause brain damage, and kidney damage in the entire population.
Chronic exposure (flooding) to benzene at a certain concentration can increase the chances of developing leukemia. Mercury (mercury) and siklodiena known to cause kidney damage, some can not even be treated. PCBs and related siklodiena on liver toxicity. Karmabat organophosphate and may cause muscle nerves. Various solvents containing chlorine stimulates changes in the liver and kidneys and a decrease in the central nervous system. There are several types of health effects that looked like headache, dizziness, fatigue, eye irritation and skin rashes to exposure to chemicals mentioned above. What is clear, in large doses, can cause soil contamination Death.
2. In Ecosystem
Soil contamination can also impact on ecosystems. Changes in soil chemical radicals can arise from the presence of toxic chemicals / hazardous even at low doses though. These changes can cause changes in metabolism of endemic microorganisms and arthropods that live in the soil environment. The result can even eliminate some of the primary species of the food chain, which can give a great result against predators or other levels of the food chain. Even if the chemical effects on the lowest form of life is low, the bottom of the food pyramid can ingest foreign chemicals which time they will be concentrated on the creatures of the inhabitants of the pyramid. Many of these effects are seen at this time, as the concentration of DDT in birds causes the eggshell fragility, increased levels of seedling death and the possible loss of species.
The impact on agriculture, especially changes in plant metabolism, which in turn can cause a decrease in agricultural output. This can cause further impact on the conservation of plants where the plants are not able to hold the soil from erosion. Some of these contaminants have long half-life and in other cases derivative chemicals are formed from the primary soil contaminants.

    
Handling To Do
There are several steps handlers to reduce the impact caused by soil pollution. Among them:1. Remidiasi
Remediation activities to clean up the contaminated soil surface. There are two types of soil remediation, namely in-situ (or on-site) and ex-situ (or off-site). On-site cleaning is cleaning at the site. Cleaning is cheaper and easier, consists of cleaning, venting (injection), and bioremediation.
Off-site cleanup includes excavation of contaminated soil and then taken to a safe area. After that the area is safe, the land cleared of contaminants. The trick is, the ground is stored in tanks / tank-proof, then the cleaning agent is pumped into the tub / tank. Furthermore pollutants pumped out of the tub which is then processed by the installation of waste water processing. Off-site cleaning is much more expensive and complicated.

2. BioremediationBioremediation is the cleaning process soil contamination with microorganisms (fungi, bacteria). Bioremediation aims to break down or degrade contaminants into less toxic materials or non-toxic (carbon dioxide and water).
B. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Conclusion
Contamination of land is a state in which man-made chemicals enter and alter the natural soil environment. Contamination usually occurs due to leakage of liquid wastes or industrial chemicals or commercial facilities; the use of pesticides; the entry of contaminated surface water into the sub-surface layer; oil transport vehicle accidents, chemical substances, or waste, waste water from a landfill and industrial wastes are directly discharged into the soil are not eligible (illegal dumping).
There are several ways to reduce the impact of soil contamination, including the remediation and bioremidiasi. Remediation is a way to clean surfaces contaminated soil. While bioremediation by soil contamination cleanup process using microorganisms (fungi, bacteria).
B. ADVICE
To better understand all about the pollution of soil, readers are advised to find other references relating to the material in this paper. In addition, it is hoped the reader after reading this paper is able to apply them in everyday life - day in conserving the soil and its constituent present in it.

REFERENCES
Soekarto. S. T. 1985. Organoleptic studies for Food and Agriculture Industry. Bhatara Literacy Works, Jakarta. P. 121.
Simple. 2007. Soil Pollution (On-line). http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/pencemaran_tanah. accessed December 26, 2007.
Bachri, Moch. 1995. Environmental Geology. CV. Literacy, Malang. P. 112.

Other Related readings contained in this blog:
Contamination
Water pollution
Pollution of land
Air Pollution
Tailings & Sludge
Land Degradation

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