Kamis, 06 Oktober 2011
TROPICAL FOREST DAMAGE
URGENCY OF FOREST TROPISEkologi is the study of the interrelationships between living things with linkungannya. Based on the environment or habitat, ecology distinguished marine ecology, freshwater, terrestrial and estuarine. While based on differentiated taxonomy of plants, vertebrates, insects, microbes and more.Forest is one form of land use laim found in tropical, subtropical, the lowlands and mountains, even in dry areas though. Understanding the forest here is a community of plants and animals that live in soil surface layer as well, which lies in an area and establish a unified ecosystem that is in dynamic equilibrium.Understanding the above forest is closely related to the processes that are interconnected as follows:Hydrological, meaning that the forest is a storehouse of water and absorb the rain water or dew that will eventually running it into the rivers that have springs in the middle of the forest on a regular basis according to the rhythm of nature. Forests also serve to protect the soil from erosion and recycling element haranya. Climate, meaning that the natural ecosystem components consisting of the elements of rain (water, sunlight and temperature), wind and humidity greatly affect the life that exists in the earth's surface, especially the macro and micro climate. Soil fertility, meaning that forest land is the main humus formation and storage of mineral elements for plants. Genetic diversity, which means that the forest has a wealth of flora and fauna species berbaai. Natural resources, forest means able to contribute substantial natural resources for foreign exchange, especially in industry. Areas of nature tourism, which means that the forest is able to function as a source of inspiration, the glory of God the Almighty, the value of aesthetics, ethics and so on.2.FUNGSI FORESTAt that time only functions in providing forest wood as fuel and construction lumber and mining houses. Once into the industrial age, the forest began to work as a producer of raw material needs, such as paper, plywood, rail pads, clothing from rayon and others. Even now become increasingly widespread forest functions:Protected forests, which conserve soil and water management areas. Nature reserves, which preserve rare plant and animal life, as well as for the development of science, the interests of culture, aesthetics, and recreation. Production forests, which produce timber and non timber, such as the timber industry are tanned and drugs.Overall, the destruction of forests due to logging (deforestation) according to expert analysis, are:Extinct society and culture that forest-dependent manner. This coincided with the extinction of their knowledge. The increase in critical land and desertification in the dry tropics region. The decline in regional rainfall, which aggravate desertification. Rising global temperatures as a result of rising levels of atmospheric carbon that causes elevated sea levels. Extinction of a large number of species of plants and animals, including loss of wildlife species as well as food and medicinal plants that have significant potential. Decline in bird populations of the temperate regions migrate to the tropics. Increased opening and soil erosion. The loss of potential hydroelectric power. The decline of rural poverty cycle3.KERUSAKAN FOREST areaThe whole area, both the provincial and district levels in Indonesia have an average forest conditions that have been damaged. Banten Province has large tropical forests, but along with the increase in population quality and quantity of forests continue to decline. Of the approximately 250 thousand hectares of forests in Banten, 90 thousand hectares or 36 percent of them in conditions of severely damagedPressure on forest ecosystems in northern Banten much larger than the south. This is because the population of the northern section offerings more offerings than the south, but the destruction of southern dbagian also very severe.A. Excessive ExploitationExploitation was not only occurs in mountain forests, but also in other forest areas, such as the forest around the river basin (DAS) Lake Ci, Ci Beureum, Simeut Ci, Ci Edge, Baliung Ci, Ci Banten, Bogor Ci, Ci Durian, Ci Manceuri and Cisadane. Similarly, in coastal forests, both west coast, south coast and north coast, even in Ujung Kulon National Park, District Wells Pandeglang also occur, destruction and looting of forests.Keruskan forests also occur in the area of nature reserve Rawa Dano, District Mancak Serang District. As a result of population pressure, encroachment and illegal land management in nature reserves covering an area of 2500 hectares was very influential on environmental degradation, among others, by melorotnya water discharge of 2,000 liters per second to only 200 liters per secondB. Multifunctional forestForests have multiple functions, ranging from the function of climatological, hydrological, sociological, biological, and economical. Forest climatological functions closely associated with climate elements such as rain, temperature, humidity, wind and sunlight. Entire forests in Banten act as 'lung' entire ecosystem in Banten Province.The symptoms of ecosystems 'sick', among others, income and expenditure (cycle) water control, increased temperature and humidity, sunlight and wind to be underutilized and not directional.C. Need to revitalizationConditions and the various functions of forests in Banten Province needs to be revitalized, as well as policies and strategies in forest management need to be repaired. Efforts must be pursued Local Governments (LGs) and community, among others through the application of silvicultural techniques (improving the quality of stands), the management aspects of ecology (biodiversity), soil and water conservation, forest fire prevention, and research and development (R & D) forestry.