Senin, 31 Oktober 2011

Urban poverty and rural waste problem

Population growth, changing consumption patterns and lifestyles of people has increased the amount of waste generation, types, and diversity characteristics of the waste. The increased purchasing power of various types of basic materials and technology results and increased business or activities supporting economic growth in a region also contributed greatly to the quantity and quality of waste generated. The increasing volume of waste requiring management. Waste management that does not use the methods and techniques that are environmentally friendly waste management in addition will be a negative impact on health will also be very disruptive lingkungam good preservation of the residential environment, forests, rice fields, rivers and oceans.
Under Law No. 18 In 2008, the garbage is the remains of everyday human activities and / or natural processes that shaped solid. Waste management is meant is a systematic, comprehensive, and which includes reduction and sustainable waste management. Based on the physical properties and chemical waste can be classified into: 1) there an easy rotting garbage consists of organic waste such as leftover vegetables, meat offal, leaves, etc., 2) waste that is not easily decompose such as plastic, paper, rubber, metal, the rest of the building materials and others, 3) waste in the form of dust / ashes; and 4) hazardous waste (B3) for health, such as garbage comes from industries and hospitals that contain chemical substances and dangerous disease agents.

To realize the city clean and green, the government has launched various programs that basically aims to encourage and enhance community capacity in waste management. Adipura program for example in the year 2007 has been able to deliver to the Province of Bali Province Adipura for all counties and cities in Bali has managed to get Adipura Award. Although it has got Adipura not mean there are no problems of waste, and the government's appreciation of the community is always required to do so in turn the waste management garbage can be processed independently and be a resource. Looking at the above phenomenon is very necessary model of good management and proper garbage in urban and rural efforts to achieve a clean and green in Bali province.

Waste management aims to improve public health and environmental quality and make waste as resources. From the standpoint of environmental health, waste management is considered good if the waste is not a medium for breeding these germs as well as the waste does not become an intermediary medium widespread a disease. Other requirements to be met, that does not pollute the air, water and soil, are not causing the smell (do not disturb the aesthetic value), does not cause fires and the other (Aswar, 1986).
The increasing volume of waste generated by urban society can be seen from the city of Denpasar, ie in 2002 the average production of about 2114 m3/day waste originating from household waste, household-like waste, and waste-specific. Within four years, namely in 2006, the amount of waste production has increased to 2,200 m3/day (Tim Denpasar City Sanitation, 2007). Meanwhile, the lack of knowledge, awareness, and community participation in waste management becomes a problem that needs attention in the management of clean and healthy environment.
Factors affecting waste management include: (1) socio-political, which involves caring and commitment of government in determining the budget Budgets for environmental management (garbage), making decisions on waste management and public education efforts, counseling and skills training to increase awareness and community participation in waste management, (2) Social Aspects of Demography, including socio-economic (tourism activities, markets and shops, and household activities, (3) Social and Cultural Rights concerning the existence of interactions between institutions village / traditional, customary rules (awig- awig), ritual (ceremonial / religious), the structure of space Tri Mandala, a sincere spirit of social service, mental attitude and behavior of citizens are apathetic, (4) the existence of waste land for the shelter, (5) finance (finance), (6) the existence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and (5) coordination between institutions involved in the prevention of environmental problems (waste).
Urban waste management also has the driving factors and inhibitors in an effort to increase community participation in waste management. According to the research Nitikesari (2005) these factors include educational level, the placement of the trash in the house, the presence of scavengers, the action of hygiene, lack of legislation on waste and enforcement. The participation rate of urban (city of Denpasar) in dealing with garbage still in the category independently of moderate to low, people are still reluctant to do waste segregation.
Waste is increasingly difficult to manage, so in addition to public awareness and involvement, technology development and waste management model is an alternative attempt to maintain a healthy and clean environment and may provide other benefits.
Based on data SLHD Bali (2005) it appears that at this waste is difficult to manage because of various things, among others:
a. The rapid development of technology, faster than society's ability to manage and understand porsoalan garbage,
b. The increasing level of community life, which is not accompanied by a harmony of knowledge about waste
c. Increased operational costs of waste management
d. Waste management is inefficient and does not really cause problems of air pollution, soil, and water and declining aesthetic
e. Inability to maintain goods, low quality technology products that will accelerate into the garbage.
f. The more difficult it gets the land as a waste disposal site ahir.
g. Increasing number of people who objected that the region is used in a landfill.
h. The difficulty of storing waste that goes off quickly, because the weather is hot.
i. Difficult to seek the participation of the community to dispose of waste in place and maintain cleanliness.
j. Inadequate financing, given that until recently, most waste is managed by the government.
Handling of waste that has been done is the collection of waste from sources such as from the public (households) and public places are collected at the polling stations have been provided. Subsequently transported by trucks that have been equipped with nets to landfill. For areas that have not been given the facilities and transport services are limited prasara waste management has done some kind of self-managed with the help of transport facilities. For businesses or activities which produce more than 1 m3/day waste transported by the employer or in cooperation with other parties such as rural / urban villages or private parties. Handling of waste from waste sources are quite effective manner.
Some businesses that have taken place at the landfill to reduce the volume of waste, as has been done by scavengers for sorting recyclable waste. It turned out as a livelihood to earn. Against perishable waste composting efforts have been made. But these efforts still leaves the waste should be managed which requires high cost and large estates. Handling of residual waste in landfill is still the way to the incinerator or the combustion either in the open burning and open dumping to decay naturally. This poses new problems for the environment, ie pollution of soil, water, and air.
Waste management will be the future need to consider various things such as:
1. Preparation of regional regulations (regulations) on waste segregation
2. Socialization of the formation of waste-free area, such as tourist attractions, markets, terminals, roads protocol, village, etc.
3. Ranking hygiene for public areas
4. Put pressure on the producer and consumer goods for production and consumption patterns are more environmentally friendly
5. Put pressure on producers to be willing to draw (buy) back from the public on the packaging of products it sells, such as plastic packaging, bottles, foil ALLUMINIUM, and others.
6. Increasing the role of the community through small-scale waste management, can be started from the village / village or district, including the use of technology in terms of recycling, composting, and use incenerator.
7. Increasing the effectiveness of the functions of the landfill
8. Encourage the transformation (shift) the consumption pattern people to prefer the products that come from recycling.
9. Waste management and waste in an integrated
10. To coordinate with relevant agencies at both central and local, NGOs, Universities to increase the capacity of management of municipal waste
11. Evaluation and monitoring of waste problems and their management, landfill conditions of the environmental aspects, the development of the application of environmentally friendly technologies
12. Optimization of the funding in urban waste management, waste management system development funding
13. Consistency of implementation of legislation on waste and the environment.
14. Improving self-management efforts, especially waste handling waste that easily decompose at the village / village
15. Provide facilitation, encouragement, mentoring / advocacy to the community in an effort to improve waste management.
Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar and Tabanan has been cooperating in an integrated waste management business-oriented technology. Waste management approach to waste management technology is expected to more quickly, effectively and efficiently and can provide other benefits.
In accordance with the provisions stipulated in Article 5 of Law No.23 Th.1997 Managing the Environment, that the public is entitled to a better environment and healthy living. To obtain such rights, in Article 6 stated that the public and employers are obliged to participate in maintaining the function of environmental sustainability, and menaggulangi prevent pollution and environmental damage. Associated with these provisions, the Act NO. 18 In 2008 also explicitly stated, that every person has the rights and obligations in waste management. In terms of waste management section 12 stated, every person required to reduce and handle waste in environmentally sound ways. The community also expressed eligible to participate in decision-making processes, management and supervision in the field of waste management. The procedure for public participation in waste management can be done by taking into account the social and cultural characteristics of each area. Departure from these provisions, of the obligations and rights of every person both individually and collectively, as well as community groups of employers and other community members to participate in the management of waste in an effort to create urban and rural environment is good, clean, and healthy.
Several approaches and technologies and waste management that have been implemented include:
1. Composting technology
Composting is one way of processing waste, a process of decomposition and stabilization of biological materials with the final product is stable enough for use on agricultural land without adverse effects (Haug, 1980). Research conducted by the Rev. (2008) found that composting by using more modern methods (aeration) able to produce a compost that has a finer grain, content of C, N, P, K and higher pH, C / N ratio, and the content of Colform lower compared with conventional composting.
2. Fertilizer Production Technology Kascing
3. Processing waste into electricity. Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar and Tabanan has been cooperating in an integrated waste management business-oriented technology in a Joint Board of SARBAGITA. The planned technology is GALFAD technology (gasification landfills and anaerobic digestion). Waste management approach to waste management technology is expected to more quickly, effectively and efficiently and can provide other benefits.
4. Independent waste management
Waste is waste processing independently performed by people in sites such as the source of waste in households. Rural communities that generally have more extensive yard space large enough to have a chance to perform waste processing independently. Independent waste management model will provide better benefits to the environment and can reduce the burden on landfill. Waste sorting independently by the community in Denpasar was relatively low at only reached 20% (Nitikesari, 2005).
5. Community-based waste management
1) Various problems faced by communities in waste management of existing urban settlements in the village of Seminyak, Sanur and Sanur Kauh Kaja, and the Village Temesi Gianyar, namely: the problem of land acquisition for the location of Devo, the limited equipment and technology perawatannnya, limited funding for manpower recruitment adequate new, compost production is still low, it is difficult and limited marketing of compost so that the manager tends to economic deficit.
2) residential waste management model city based social community can be done adaptively by taking into account the social characteristics and cultural aspects of society, aspects of space (environment), volume, and type of waste generated.
The pattern of community-based waste management should be conducted in a synergistic (integrated) of the various elements (Village, governments, NGOs, business / private sector, schools, and other related components) by making the local community as object and subject of development, particularly in waste management to create environmentally clean, safe, healthy, beautiful, and sustainable
Law on waste management has asserted various restrictions such as not throwing garbage at a place specified and made available, burn waste not sesaui with technical requirements, as well as waste handling by open dumping at the landfill. Landfill closure by open dumping should be stopped within 5 years after the enactment of Law no. 18 of 2008. In developing the model of urban waste management should be able to involve the various components of stakeholders such as local government, businesses, NGOs, and communities. More urban component derived from the settlement (village Pakraman and Service), whereas in rural areas are generally still very closely related to the presence of rice fields with institutional subak areas that must be involved. The selection model is highly dependent on the characteristics and the characteristics of urban and rural garbage in the region.
With the enactment of Law no. 18 Year 2008 regarding Waste Management will require a good model for waste management and proper to be developed in urban and rural areas so that the quality of health, environmental quality can be improved and the waste can be a resource that can be utilized for enhancing the welfare of the community.
The model should involve various stakeholders components and attention to the characteristics of waste, urban or rural characteristics and socio-cultural existence of the local community.

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